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      Fundamental Investing: A Deep Dive - Stocks Telegraph

      By Fahim Awan

      Published on

      March 7, 2023

      11:28 AM UTC

      Last Updated on

      March 24, 2023

      6:02 AM UTC

      Fundamental Investing: A Deep Dive - Stocks Telegraph

      Fundamental investing is a way to determine the intrinsic value and growth potential of a company or asset by analyzing its financial and economic fundamentals.

      Investments based on fundamental analysis seek to identify undervalued assets or companies that can grow over the long term.

      In addition to studying financial and economic indicators, fundamental investors typically examine industry trends, revenue, earnings, and profit margins.

      Their evaluations also take into account the company’s management team, its competitive advantages, and its innovation potential.

      These factors help fundamental investors determine the fair value of companies or assets using valuation models. An investor may consider a company or asset undervalued if its market price is lower than its fair value.

      Since it takes time for the company or asset to realize its growth potential, fundamental investing is typically a long-term investment strategy.

      To achieve success, this approach requires extensive research and analysis, as well as a deep understanding of the economy and the industry as a whole.

      Some Investment Basics

      Fundamental Investing involves putting money or resources into assets or ventures in the hopes of generating a future return or profit.

      Through investment, one seeks to build wealth through the appreciation of invested assets, as well as dividends, interest, and rental income generated by those assets.

      An investment can be in the form of stocks, bonds, mutual funds, real estate, commodities, or alternative investments like private equity or hedge funds.

      It is critical for investors to consider their investment timeline, goals, and risk tolerance when choosing how and where they will invest their funds.

      To accomplish long-term financial goals, such as saving for retirement, creating wealth, or ensuring a child’s education, investing is an imperative tool, but it must be balanced with a sound investment strategy.

      An investment can be owned in a variety of ways, including:

      • Direct ownership

        A direct ownership relationship involves outright ownership of a stock, bond, or real estate investment while making all relevant decisions to manage that investment.

      • Mutual funds

        It is a type of investment vehicle in which the investor owns a portion of the assets. A mutual fund is an investment vehicle that consists of money from a variety of investors and is managed by a professional fund manager.

      • Exchange-traded funds (ETFs)

        ETFs are similar to mutual funds, but they trade on an exchange like stocks. Investors who invest in an ETF acquire ownership rights to a portion of the fund.

      • Retirement accounts

        Investments in retirement accounts such as 401(k)s and IRAs provide investors with tax advantages and ownership rights.

      • Robo-advisors

        These are investment platforms that use algorithms to manage investments. Investors use their platform to manage their portfolio of investments.

      • Real estate investment trusts (REITs)

        REITs are companies that own and manage income-producing properties. Investors invest in REITs to own part of the company and profit from it.

      • Private Equity

        Investment in a private equity fund involves owning shares of the companies it invests in.  Private equity refers to investing in privately held companies.

      Understand the risks with investing

      Risk is an inherent part of investing, and it is important to comprehend the different types of risks associated with different investments. Here are some of the key risks to consider:

      • Market Risk

        Risks associated with the market and economic changes can cause the value of an investment to decline. All investments are subject to some level of market risk, but stocks are particularly exposed.

      • Credit Risk

        Credit risk is the possibility that a borrower will not be able to repay their debt. Investments in bonds, loans, and other fixed-income securities are subject to this rule.

      • Inflation Risk

        Investing involves the risk that inflation will erode the value of an investment. Fixed-interest investments are especially vulnerable to inflation, as it reduces the purchasing power of returns.

      • Liquidity Risk

        Investing in liquid assets can have liquidity risk if investors can’t sell them quickly enough to meet their cash needs or to turn their investments into better investments.

        For investments like real estate or private equity that are less frequently traded, this risk is higher.

      • Political and Regulatory Risk

        It refers to the possibility that government policies and laws could adversely affect an investment’s value. Investing in industries with a high level of regulation or political uncertainty will have a higher risk.

        In order to reduce the impact of any single risk, it is important to understand the risks associated with each investment. The benefits of investing include building wealth, but it’s important to have realistic expectations.

      Following are some tips to keep investing expectations realistic:

      • Set realistic goals

        Setting realistic financial goals is the first step to investing. Choosing to save can be beneficial for a number of reasons, including paying down a mortgage or planning for retirement.

        To achieve such goals, it is critical to establish specific, measurable, and time-bound goals.

      • Be aware of the risks

        There are risks associated with all investments, so it is important to be aware of them. In general, the greater the potential return, the greater the risk will be.

        The risk of each investment can be mitigated by taking into account its own risk tolerance and understanding the risks associated with the investment.

      • Diversify the portfolio

        Portfolio diversification is an effective risk management strategy. In other words, it involves investing in different assets, such as stocks, bonds, and real estate.

        Diversification can help protect portfolios from market fluctuations and reduce the impact of poor performances from individual investments.

      • Stay informed

        Follow the latest news and trends in the market, but try not to get swept up in short-term fluctuations. Put more emphasis on long-term trends and stick with an investment plan.

      • Have patience

        Being patient is important when it comes to investing. Invest according to a plan and don’t react to market fluctuations. Stock markets tend to grow over the long run, so don’t panic during short-term downturns.

      There are several ways that long-term investing can reduce risk:

      • Holding a variety of assets

        When investors hold a variety of assets for a long period of time, they can reduce the impact of a single investment on their overall financial portfolio by spreading their risk.

        An appropriately diversified portfolio includes investments in a range of sectors, geographies, asset classes, and industries, which reduces the risk associated with any one individual investment.

      • Time Horizon

        Long-term investing allows investors to weather market ups and downs. Over the long term, markets tend to trend upwards despite short-term fluctuations that can be unpredictable.

        The benefit of long-term investments is that they are more likely to see positive returns and avoid the volatility of short-term investments.

      • Compound Interest

        The power of compound interest helps investors grow their investments over time when they invest long-term. Over time, their portfolio grows exponentially due to the reinvested returns from their investments.

        Long-term investing generally offers enhanced stability and consistency in returns, which can reduce the associated risk over time as a result of short-term market fluctuations.

        The key to developing a long-term investing strategy is to carefully consider risk tolerance and investment goals while investing.

      Advantages of fundamental analysis

      Fundamental analysis is a method of analyzing and valuing a company by examining its financial and economic fundamentals.

      This analysis involves studying a company’s financial statements, industry trends, economic indicators, and other factors that may impact the company’s future performance. Some advantages of fundamental analysis include:

      • Identifying undervalued assets

        By analyzing a company’s financial statements, earnings reports, industry trends, and economic conditions, fundamental analysts can determine whether a stock or other asset is undervalued or overvalued.

        This can help investors make informed decisions about when to buy or sell an asset.

      • Long-term perspective

        Fundamental analysis takes a long-term perspective, which can be helpful for investors who are interested in holding assets for the long haul.

        By looking at a company’s underlying financial and economic factors, fundamental analysts can assess whether a company is likely to succeed in the long run.

      • Helps in decision-making

        Fundamental analysis provides investors with a comprehensive view of a company’s financial health and future prospects, which can help them make informed decisions about buying or selling an asset.

      • Risk assessment

        Fundamental analysis also helps investors to identify the risks associated with a particular asset.

        By examining a company’s financial health, debt levels, and other factors, investors can determine whether an asset is likely to be a safe investment or a risky one.

      • Transparency

        The information used in fundamental analysis is publicly available, which means that investors can make informed decisions based on publicly available information.

        This can be helpful for investors who value transparency and want to make decisions based on reliable information.

      Components of fundamental analysis

      The main components of fundamental analysis include:

      • Financial Statements

        Fundamental analysts typically start with a company’s financial statements, which include the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement.

        These statements provide information about the company’s financial performance and position, such as revenues, expenses, assets, and liabilities.

      • Industry Analysis

        A company’s performance is influenced by broader economic and industry trends.

        Fundamental analysts examine the industry in which the company operates, including competitors, market share, regulatory environment, and other relevant factors.

      • Management Assessment

        The quality of a company’s management team is an important consideration in fundamental analysis. Analysts evaluate the management team’s experience, competence, strategic vision, and alignment with shareholder interests.

      • Valuation

        Fundamental analysts use various methods to value a company, such as price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, price-to-book (P/B) ratio, discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis, and other metrics.

      • Macroeconomic Analysis

        The broader economic environment can also affect a company’s performance, and fundamental analysts evaluate macroeconomic factors such as interest rates, inflation, and government policies.

        Fundamental analysis seeks to assess a company’s intrinsic value, which is the true worth of the company based on its financial and economic fundamentals.

      Use of asset allocation strategy

      The concept of asset allocation involves dividing an investment portfolio among different asset classes such as stocks, bonds, real estate, and cash equivalents.

      Asset allocation aims to balance risk and reward by investing across a range of asset classes that perform differently depending on market conditions.

      In terms of investing, asset allocation can provide the following benefits:

      • Risk management

        By allocating assets appropriately, an investment portfolio can be made more risk-averse. It is possible to reduce the impact of volatility in one asset class by investing across several asset classes.

        This can help to protect an investor’s investments during times of market turmoil.

      • Investment in different asset classes

        The spread of investments across different asset classes and geographies provides diversification benefits.

        As a result, concentration risk associated with a single asset class can potentially be reduced and long-term returns can be enhanced.

      • Long-term investment

        Investors use asset allocation as a long-term investment strategy to stay disciplined and focused.

        Investing in a balanced portfolio and rebalancing it regularly can help investors avoid making emotional decisions based on short-term events.

      • Customization

        An asset allocation strategy allows investors to tailor their investment portfolio based on their desired level of risk and return. Choosing the right asset classes for a portfolio can help an investor achieve their investment goals.

        Managing risk while achieving long-term investment goals is a crucial component of asset allocation and this can help investors manage risk and remain on track for the long term.

      Sample Asset Allocations

      To achieve a specific financial goal while managing risk, asset allocation divides an investment portfolio among stocks, bonds, real estate, and cash. This is an example of how asset allocation works in practice:

      • Assume that a young professional in his 30s has $100,000 to invest, and he wants to allocate that money across multiple asset classes in order to build long-term wealth for retirement.
      • In the beginning, he might choose to invest 60% of his money in stocks, which are known for their high returns over the long term, but also for their high risk.
      • To diversify his portfolio and reduce the impact of any single stock on his overall returns, he might select a mix of large-cap, mid-cap, and small-cap stocks across different sectors and industries.
      • As a next step, he might invest 30% of his money in bonds, which provide a steady income through interest payments and tend to be less volatile than stocks.
      • If he decides to mix government and corporate bonds with different maturities, he might achieve a better balance between return and risk.
      • To provide liquidity in case of unexpected expenses or opportunities, he may keep 10% of his money in cash or cash equivalents, such as high-yield savings accounts or money market funds.
      • Near retirement, he may adjust his asset allocation to reduce risk and invest more in income-producing investments.
      • It might make sense for him to increase the allocation of his portfolio to bonds and decrease the allocation to stocks, or to add real estate or alternative investments.

      Successful asset allocation involves balancing risk and returns objectives with the financial goals and time horizon. When circumstances change and market conditions change, the portfolio needs to be regularly reviewed and adjusted.

      4 Rules of Investing

      There are many rules for investing, but here are four commonly cited ones:

      • Diversify the investments

        Investing in different types of assets will help ensure that a decline in one area of the market won’t have too large of an impact on an overall portfolio.

      • Invest for the long term

        Investing is not a get-rich-quick scheme. The most successful investors tend to be those who are patient and willing to hold their investments for the long term.

      • Don’t try to time the market

        Trying to predict the ups and downs of the market is a risky and difficult game to play. Instead, focus on the long-term fundamentals of the investments and avoid making decisions based on short-term market movements.

      • Keep emotions in check

        Investing can be an emotional rollercoaster, and it’s important for investors to keep their emotions in check when making investment decisions.

        This means avoiding rash decisions when the market is volatile and not getting too excited when things are going well.

      3 R’s of Investing

      The 3 R’s of investing are:

      • Return

        This refers to the amount of profit or gains an investor receives from an investment. Returns can come in the form of capital gains, dividends, interest payments, or other forms of income.

      • Risk

        This refers to the possibility of losing money on an investment. All investments carry some level of risk, and it’s important for investors to assess their risk tolerance and choose investments that match their risk profile.

      • Reward

        This refers to the potential benefits that an investor can gain from taking on investment risk. The higher the risk, the higher the potential reward, but also the higher the potential loss.

        Investors need to balance the risk and rewards of their investments to achieve their financial goals.


      Fundamental investing involves analyzing the financial and economic fundamentals of an asset or company to determine its intrinsic value and growth potential.

      This long-term investment strategy involves extensive research and analysis, taking into account factors such as industry trends, revenue, earnings, profit margins, management team, competitive advantages, and innovation potential.

      Fundamental investors use valuation models to determine the fair value of companies or assets and seek to identify undervalued assets that can grow over the long term.


      Why is fundamental investing important?

      Fundamental investing is important because it provides a systematic approach for investors to evaluate the intrinsic value of a company’s stock.

      Fundamental analysis focuses on the underlying financial and economic factors that drive a company’s performance, such as its revenue, earnings, assets, liabilities, growth potential, and market position.

      By analyzing a company’s financial statements, management quality, industry trends, and competitive landscape, investors can assess the long-term growth potential of a company and determine whether its stock is undervalued or overvalued.

      Which online investing training is best for technical & fundamental analysis?

      There are many online investing training programs available that offer education in both technical and fundamental analysis. The best training program for you will depend on your specific goals and needs.

      Coursera, Udemy, Investopedia Academy, and are some widely used to get online investing training programs that provide a solid foundation in technical and fundamental analysis.

      What should I invest in if I have 100K?

      If you’re considering investing your 100K in the stock market, it’s essential to have a diversified portfolio to minimize risk. One option is to invest in low-cost index funds or exchange-traded funds (ETFs) that track a broad market index. Alternatively, you could also invest in individual stocks, but this requires more research and expertise.

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