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      YoY Analysis – The Power of YoY Analysis in Financial Evaluation - Stocks Telegraph

      By Fahim Awan

      Published on

      March 8, 2023

      1:13 PM UTC

      Last Updated on

      March 24, 2023

      6:02 AM UTC

      YoY Analysis – The Power of YoY Analysis in Financial Evaluation - Stocks Telegraph

      Analyzing financial performance is crucial for any business or investment, and year-over-year analysis, or YoY analysis for short, is a powerful tool that can provide valuable insights into the health and trajectory of a company’s financial performance over time.

      By comparing the same financial metrics from one year to the next, year-over-year analysis can help identify trends, both positive and negative, and patterns that may not be immediately apparent when looking at a single year’s data.

      This information can be instrumental in developing effective business strategies, setting realistic financial goals, and making informed investment decisions.

      The year-over-year analysis technique can be applied to a variety of financial metrics, including revenue, profits, expenses, and cash flow, making it a versatile and valuable tool for businesses, investors, and financial analysts.

      Understanding YoY analysis can help you gain a deeper understanding of financial performance, anticipate market trends, and make informed decisions that can help you achieve your financial goals.

      What is YoY?

      In financial analysis, YoY is a term used to describe the comparison of data or performance between two points in time that are one year apart.

      For example, if we want to compare the sales of a company in 2023 with its sales in 2022, we would calculate the YoY growth rate. This tells us the percentage increase or decrease in sales from one year to the next.

      YoY comparisons are commonly used in business, finance, and economics to measure trends and changes in performance over time. It is a useful tool for analyzing and understanding long-term patterns and making decisions based on them.

      Importance of YoY Economic Indicators

      Here are some reasons why YoY economic indicators are important:

      • Identify trends

        YoY indicators help to identify trends in economic activity over time. By comparing data from one year to the next, it is possible to see if the economy is growing or contracting, and at what rate.

      • Measure economic performance

        YoY indicators provide a benchmark for measuring economic performance. For example, GDP growth, employment rate, inflation rate, and consumer spending can all be compared YoY to assess how the economy is performing.

      • Inform policy decisions

        Policymakers use YoY indicators to inform their decisions about fiscal and monetary policy. For example, if inflation is rising YoY, the central bank may decide to increase interest rates to cool down the economy.

      • Guide business decisions

        Businesses use YoY indicators to guide their decisions about investments, hiring, and expansion. For example, if consumer spending is increasing YoY, businesses may decide to expand their operations or increase hiring.

      • Evaluate investment opportunities

        Investors use YoY indicators to evaluate investment opportunities. By comparing financial performance YoY, investors can determine if a company is growing or declining and if its stock is a good investment.

      YoY and seasonality

      When analyzing YOY performance, it’s important to take seasonality into account. This is because the performance of certain metrics can be influenced by factors such as weather, holidays, or other seasonal events.

      By accounting for seasonality, analysts can get a more accurate picture of whether a metric has truly improved or declined year-over-year.

        • Analyzing monthly revenue growth

          Analyzing monthly revenue growth can provide valuable insights into the performance of a business. Here are some steps we can take to analyze monthly revenue growth:

        • Gather monthly revenue data

          Collect monthly revenue data for the period we want to analyze. This data can be obtained from financial statements or accounting software.

        • Calculate the monthly growth rate

          Calculate the percentage change in value from one month to the next. The formula for calculating the monthly growth rate is:

        • Monthly Growth Rate = Current Month ValuePrevious Month ValuePrevious Month Valuex100

      • Analyze the trends

        Plot the monthly growth rates on a graph to visualize the trends. Look for patterns, such as increasing or decreasing growth rates, and identify any outliers.

      • Identify factors affecting revenue growth

        Identify any factors that may have affected revenue growth, such as changes in the market, customer behavior, or internal business operations. Analyze the impact of these factors on revenue growth.

      • Compare to industry benchmarks

        Compare monthly revenue growth rates to industry benchmarks to see how a business is performing relative to competitors. This can help identify areas where a business may need to improve.

      • Make data-driven decisions

        Use the insights gained from the analysis to make data-driven decisions about pricing, marketing, sales, and other business operations. Continuously monitor and analyze revenue growth to adjust your strategies as needed.

      • Example

        To calculate AAPL’s monthly revenue growth, we need to compare its revenue for two consecutive months and calculate the percentage change between them. The formula for monthly revenue growth is as follows:YoY Analysis: Monthly Growth Rate

        For example, AAPL‘s revenue was $90.146 billion in January and $117.154 billion in February. The monthly revenue growth for February would be:YOY Analysis: Monthly Revenue Rate

        This means that AAPL’s revenue grew by 29.96% from January to February. To calculate the monthly revenue growth for other months, we would follow the same formula using the revenue figures for those months.

      Common YoY financial metrics

      Year-over-year (YoY) financial metrics compare a company’s performance in a given year to its performance in the previous year. Some common YoY financial metrics include:

      • Sales revenue

        YoY revenue growth shows how much a company’s revenue has increased or decreased compared to the same period in the previous year.

      • Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)

        This is the direct cost of producing goods or services that a company sells. It includes the cost of materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead.

      • Selling General & Administrative expense (SG&A)

        This is the indirect cost of running a business, including expenses related to sales and marketing, administration, and other general expenses.

      • Earnings Before Interest Taxes Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA)

        This is a measure of a company’s profitability that takes into account its operating expenses.

      • Net Income

        YoY net income growth shows the change in a company’s net income over the past year.

      • Earnings Per Share (EPS)

        YoY EPS growth measures the change in a company’s earnings per share over the past year.

      Common YoY economic indicators

      Year-over-year (YoY) economic indicators are important because they provide a comparison of economic data over a fixed period, usually one year.

      YoY indicators are used by economists, policymakers, businesses, and investors to assess economic trends, identify changes in economic activity, and make informed decisions.

      Some common Year-over-Year (YoY) economic indicators include:

      • Inflation rate

        Inflation is the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising. A YoY inflation rate compares the average price level of goods and services in the current year with the average price level in the previous year.

        A high inflation rate can reduce the purchasing power of consumers, increase the cost of borrowing, and reduce investment.

      • Unemployment rate

        The unemployment rate measures the percentage of the labor force that is unemployed but actively seeking employment. A YoY unemployment rate compares the current unemployment rate with the unemployment rate in the previous year.

        A high unemployment rate can indicate a weak labor market, reduced consumer spending, and a slower economy.

      • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

        GDP is the total value of goods and services produced by a country in a given period. A YoY GDP growth rate compares the current GDP with the GDP in the previous year.

        A high GDP growth rate indicates a growing economy and increased economic activity.

      • Interest rates

        Interest rates are the cost of borrowing money. A YoY interest rate compares the current interest rate with the interest rate in the previous year. High-interest rates can reduce consumer spending and borrowing, leading to a slower economy.

        Low-interest rates can increase consumer spending and borrowing, leading to increased economic activity.

      Alternatives to YoY analysis

      Year-over-year (YoY) analysis is a common method used to compare performance or growth rates between two different time periods.

      However, there are several other alternatives to YoY analysis that can also be useful, depending on the context and the data available.

      Here are a few options:

      • Quarter-over-quarter (QoQ) analysis

        This method compares performance or growth rates between two consecutive quarters, which can provide more granular insights into trends over shorter time periods.

      • Month-over-month (MoM) analysis

        Similar to QoQ analysis, this method compares performance or growth rates between two consecutive months. This can be especially useful for businesses that have seasonal fluctuations in demand or revenue.

      • Rolling averages

        Instead of comparing performance or growth rates between specific time periods, rolling averages take an average of data points over a set time period.

        For example, a 12-month rolling average would take the average of the past 12 months of data, which can smooth out short-term fluctuations and provide a more stable trend line.

      • Benchmarking

        Rather than comparing performance to a previous time period, benchmarking compares performance to industry standards or competitors. This can provide context for how well a business is performing relative to its peers.

      • Forecasting

        Rather than analyzing past performance, forecasting uses historical data and other variables to predict future performance. This can be useful for businesses looking to make strategic decisions or anticipate potential challenges.

        These are just a few alternatives to year-over-year analysis, and different methods may be more appropriate depending on the specific situation and goals of the analysis.

      Example of YoY analysis

      Let’s compare Apple Inc.’s financial results for the fiscal year 2022 with the fiscal year 2021 to perform a YoY analysis.

      Here are the key financial metrics reported by the company for the fiscal year 2022, which ended in September 2022:

      • Net sales: $394.33 billion, an increase of 7.80% YoY from the Net Sales of $365.82 billion in 2021.
      • Gross margin: 31%, compared to 41.78% in FY2021
      • Net income: $99.82 billion, an increase of 5.43% YoY from a Net Income of $94.68 billion in 2021

      This means that Apple Inc.’s net sales increased by 7.80% in FY2022 compared to the same period in FY2021. Similarly, its net income increased by 5.43% YoY, indicating strong profitability.

      The increase in net sales was attributed to the strong demand for its products, including the iPhone 12 and the MacBook Air, as well as its services business, which includes the App Store, Apple Music, and Apple Pay.

      The increase in net income was driven by higher revenue and gross margin, as well as a lower tax rate in FY2022.

      Overall, this year-over-year analysis indicates that Apple Inc. had a strong financial performance in FY2022 compared to FY2021.


      YoY analysis is a financial evaluation technique that compares a company’s or an investment’s performance over two consecutive years by comparing financial metrics such as revenue, profits, or expenses in the current year with those of the same period in the previous year.

      year-over-year analysis can identify trends and patterns, both positive and negative, in a company’s financial performance and is useful for setting realistic financial goals and making strategic decisions.

      Analyzing monthly revenue growth through YoY comparisons can provide valuable insights into a business’s performance by collecting monthly revenue data, calculating monthly growth rates, and analyzing trends and factors affecting revenue growth.


      How is YoY analysis different from other types of analysis, such as quarter-over-quarter or month-over-month analysis?

      YoY analysis, or year-over-year analysis, compares a specific metric or data point from one year to the same point in the previous year. This type of analysis is useful for understanding the change in performance or growth of a business over a longer time frame.

      The key difference between YoY analysis and Quarter-over-quarter (QoQ) or Month-over-month (MoM) analysis is the time frame being compared.

      YoY analysis looks at changes over a longer period, which can provide a more stable and consistent view of performance.

      On the other hand, QoQ and MoM analysis look at changes over shorter periods, which can be more volatile and subject to seasonal or cyclical changes.

      Ultimately, the choice of analysis will depend on the specific business needs and the type of data being analyzed.

      What are some limitations of YoY analysis, and how can these limitations be addressed to ensure accurate insights?

      Year-over-year (YoY) analysis is a commonly used method for measuring changes in performance or trends over time. However, there are limitations to this approach.

      For instance, YoY analysis may not account for short-term fluctuations, seasonality, or significant events that occurred during the period being analyzed.

      To address these limitations and ensure accurate insights, it is essential to incorporate additional data sources, such as monthly or quarterly data, to account for seasonality or other short-term variations.

      Moreover, it is critical to consider the context surrounding any significant events that may have influenced the results and adjust the analysis accordingly.

      Finally, it is important to avoid solely relying on YoY analysis and incorporate other methods, such as trend analysis, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of performance or trends over time.

      What are some common metrics used in YoY analysis, and why are these metrics important?

      Year-over-year (YoY) financial analysis is a popular method used by businesses and investors to measure the financial performance of a company over a period of time.

      Some of the most common metrics used in YoY financial analysis include revenue growth, net income, earnings per share (EPS), gross margin, and operating expenses.

      These metrics are important because they provide insight into a company’s financial health and its ability to generate profits, manage costs, and sustain growth.

      By tracking these metrics over time, businesses and investors can identify trends and make informed decisions about their investments or strategies.

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